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1 year–14 years


Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children generally have good health based on a range of factors but not all are as healthy as they could be. This section outlines overall health measures and main causes of ill health.

Health conditions

In 2018–19, 44% (112,100) of Indigenous children aged 1–14 had a current long-term health condition.

Of these, the most common current long-term health conditions were: 

  • Diseases of respiratory system (20% or 51,100), which include asthma, hay fever and allergic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis.
  • Mental and behavioural problems (14% or 35,700), which include anxiety and autism spectrum disorders.
  • Diseases of eye and adnexa (11% or 27,600), which include long sight/hyperopia, short sight/myopia and astigmatism (Figure CH 8).


In 2018–19, among Indigenous children aged 1–14:

  • 23% (58,100) were living with disability.
  • 32% (18,400) of people with a disability had a profound or severe core activity limitation.
  • Boys (27% or 35,600) were more likely to have a disability than girls (18% or 22,700) (Figure CH 9).


In 2014–2018, there were 137 deaths among Indigenous children aged 5–14 (or 17 per 100,000 children and year).

The leading cause of death for Indigenous children aged 5–14 was land transport accidents (23 deaths or annual rate of 2.9 per 100,000). Suicide was the second leading cause of death, accounting for 20 deaths with an annual rate of 2.5 per 100,000 population (Figure CH 10).