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Housing circumstances and health

Subtopic: Household numbers

Description:


Number of Indigenous households (occupied private dwellings with at least one usual resident identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander).


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Notes:



  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have been underenumerated in the Census and therefore, estimates of the number of Indigenous households based on Census data will be an underestimation, especially in areas with lower Census completion.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households that could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households that could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.

Description:


Number of Indigenous households (occupied private dwellings with at least one usual resident identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander) as a proportion of total households (occupied private dwellings).


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Notes:



  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have been underenumerated in the Census and therefore, estimates of the number of Indigenous households based on Census data will be an underestimation, especially in areas with lower Census completion.

  • Households where the Indigenous status of usual residents was not stated are included in the total.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households that could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households that could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.

Subtopic: Household composition

Description:


The proportion of Indigenous households by household composition (type of household within a dwelling).


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:


Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Notes:



  • Household composition indicates whether a family is present or not and whether or not other unrelated household members are present.

    • A family is defined by the ABS as two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who are usually resident in the same household.

    • Each separately identified couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship forms the basis of a family. Some households contain more than one family.

    • Non-related persons living in the same household are not counted as family members (unless under 15 years of age).

    • Other related individuals (brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles) may be present in the household. If more than one family is present these people can only be associated with the primary family.



  • If more than three families are found in a household, only three families are separately classified and any other people are classified as either related family members or non-family members as appropriate.

  • A person is coded as an ‘Unrelated individual living in a family household’ if they are not related to any other members of the household, but other household members are related to one another. Family type and other family variables are ‘Not applicable’ for such people, but their household composition will be ‘Family households’.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households which could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households which could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.

Description:


The proportion of Indigenous families (where at least one member of the family is identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin) by family composition (based on familial relationships).


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: Statistical Areas Level 3 (SA3s); State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:


Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Notes:



  • The Family Composition variable distinguishes between different types of families based on the presence or absence of couple relationships, parent-child relationships, child dependency relationships or other familial relationships, in that order of preference.

    • A family is defined by the ABS as two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who are usually resident in the same household.

    • Each separately identified couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship forms the basis of a family. Some households contain more than one family.

    • Non-related persons living in the same household are not counted as family members (unless under 15 years of age).

    • Other related individuals (brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles) may be present in the household. If more than one family is present these people can only be associated with the primary family.



  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households that could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households that could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.

Description:


The proportion of Indigenous households by the number of usual residents.


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:


Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Notes:



  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households that could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households that could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.

Subtopic: Occupancy and costs

Description:


Proportion of Indigenous households that owned their home.


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:



  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

  • Data have been suppressed if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 50% or more of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.

  • Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 25–<50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes:



  • ‘Owned’ homes include those owned without a mortgage, owned with a mortgage, and those being purchased under a shared equity scheme.

  • Denominator excludes households for which tenure type or landlord type was not stated.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households which could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households which could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.

Description:


Proportion of Indigenous households that were renting their home from a private or other landlord.


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:



  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

  • Data have been suppressed if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 50% or more of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.

  • Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 25–<50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes:



  • ‘Rented (Private and other landlord)’ homes include those being rented from a real estate agent, person not in the same household, or other landlord type.

  • Denominator excludes households for which tenure type or landlord type was not stated.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households which could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households which could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.

Description:


Proportion of Indigenous households that were renting their home from Government housing or another social housing group.


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:



  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

  • Data have been suppressed if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 50% or more of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.

  • Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 25–<50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes:



  • ‘Rented (Social housing)’ homes include those being rented from a state/territory housing authority, housing co-operative, community or church group.

  • Denominator excludes households for which tenure type or landlord type was not stated.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households which could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households which could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.

Description:


Proportion of Indigenous households by tenure and landlord type.


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:



  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

  • Data have been suppressed if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 50% or more of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.

  • Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 25–<50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes:



  • ‘Owned’ homes include those owned without a mortgage, owned with a mortgage, and those being purchased under a shared equity scheme.

  • ‘Rented (Private and other landlord)’ homes include those being rented from a real estate agent, person not in the same household, or other landlord type.

  • ‘Rented (Social housing)’ homes include those being rented from a state/territory housing authority, housing co-operative, community or church group.

  • Denominator excludes households for which tenure type or landlord type was not stated.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households that could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households that could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.

Description:


Proportion of Indigenous households by weekly household rent, among households rented from private and other landlord types.


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:



  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

  • Data have been suppressed if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 50% or more of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.

  • Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 25–<50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes:



  • Includes homes being rented from a real estate agent, person not in the same household, or other landlord type.

  • Values reflect Australian dollars in August 2016.

  • Nil payments are included in ‘Less than $125’.

  • Excludes households for which rent value was not stated.

  • Excludes households for which landlord type was not stated.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households that could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households that could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.

Description:


Proportion of Indigenous households by weekly household rent, among households rented from social housing.


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:



  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

  • Data have been suppressed if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 50% or more of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.

  • Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 25–<50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes:



  • Includes homes being rented from a state/territory housing authority, housing co-operative, community or church group.

  • Values reflect Australian dollars in August 2016.

  • Nil payments are included in ‘Less than $125’.

  • Excludes households for which rent value was not stated.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households that could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households that could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.

Subtopic: Housing suitability

Description:


Proportion of Indigenous households in appropriately sized housing (with no extra bedrooms needed to accommodate the usual residents).


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:



  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

  • Data have been suppressed if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 50% or more of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.

  • Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 25–<50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes:



  • This measure is based on the Housing Suitability variable, which compares the number of bedrooms in a dwelling with a series of household demographics, such as the number of usual residents, their relationship to each other, age and sex. The criteria are based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard (CNOS).

  • Appropriately sized housing means the CNOS criteria are met by the number of bedrooms.

  • Excludes households for which Housing Suitability could not be determined.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households that could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households that could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.


AIHW 2017 Canadian National Occupancy Standard [METeOR], AIHW, accessed 1 December 2021.

Description:


Proportion of Indigenous households by overcrowding status.


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:



  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

  • Data have been suppressed if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 50% or more of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.

  • Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 25–<50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes:



  • This measure is based on the Housing Suitability variable, which compares the number of bedrooms in a dwelling with a series of household demographics, such as the number of usual residents, their relationship to each other, age and sex. The criteria are based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard (CNOS).

  • Overcrowded households are those which would require at least one extra bedroom to accommodate the usual residents, in accordance with the CNOS.

  • Excludes households for which Housing Suitability could not be determined.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households that could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households that could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.


AIHW 2017 Canadian National Occupancy Standard [METeOR], AIHW, accessed 1 December 2021.

Description:


Proportion of Indigenous households by number of extra bedrooms needed/spare.


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:



  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

  • Data have been suppressed if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 50% or more of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.

  • Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 25–<50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes:



  • This measure is based on the Housing Suitability variable, which compares the number of bedrooms in a dwelling with a series of household demographics, such as the number of usual residents, their relationship to each other, age and sex. The criteria are based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard (CNOS).

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households that could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households that could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.


AIHW 2017 Canadian National Occupancy Standard [METeOR], AIHW, accessed 1 December 2021.

Description:


Proportion of Indigenous households by number of extra bedrooms needed.


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:



  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

  • Data have been suppressed if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 50% or more of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.

  • Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if responses to the relevant data item(s) were not stated or adequately described for 25–<50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes:



  • This measure is based on the Housing Suitability variable, which compares the number of bedrooms in a dwelling with a series of household demographics, such as the number of usual residents, their relationship to each other, age and sex. The criteria are based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard (CNOS).

  • Excludes households for which Housing Suitability could not be determined.

  • Non-classifiable households were excluded. These include visitor only households, occupied households that could not be contacted, households containing only persons aged under 15, households that could not be classified because there was insufficient information on the Census form.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016, August 2016: ABS cat. no. 2901.0.


AIHW 2017 Canadian National Occupancy Standard [METeOR], AIHW, accessed 1 December 2021.

Subtopic: Homelessness

Description:


Estimated number of Indigenous Australians who were counted as homeless on Census night (meeting criteria of one or more of the ABS’ Homeless Operational Groups).


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:


Data have been suppressed if the total count was under 3.


Notes:



  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have been underenumerated in the Census and therefore, estimates of homelessness based on Census data will be an underestimation.

  • The ABS’ definition of homelessness has been developed for application to the general population in Australia.

  • People counted as homeless were assigned to one of 6 Homeless Operational Groups, following an ordered hierarchy:





    1. Persons living in improvised dwellings, tents or sleeping out

    2. Persons living in short term supported accommodation for the homeless

    3. Persons staying temporarily with other households

    4. Persons living in boarding houses

    5. Persons living temporarily in other lodgings

    6. Persons living in severely crowded dwellings




For example, people who usually lived in severely crowded households but were living in an improvised dwelling, tent or sleeping out on Census night would be counted within the 1st operational group and not the 6th.



  • The Homeless Operational Group, “Persons living in 'severely' crowded dwellings”, refers to usual residents in dwellings needing 4 or more extra bedrooms under the Canadian National Occupancy Standard (CNOS).

    • This group is included as homeless on the basis that individual residents are unlikely to have control of and access to space for social relations.

    • Some people in this operational group may not consider themselves to be homeless.

    • In some areas, like Very Remote parts of the Northern Territory, severe overcrowding is particularly common among Indigenous households. In such areas, Indigenous Australians enumerated in this operational group can make up over 90% of the Indigenous population counted as homeless.



  • Geographical breakdowns were based on Place of Enumeration. Some people may have been away from their usual residence (where applicable) on the night of the Census.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2018 Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness, 2016, ABS, accessed 18 October 2021.


AIHW 2017 Canadian National Occupancy Standard [METeOR], AIHW, accessed 1 December 2021.

Description:


Estimated proportion of Indigenous Australians who were counted as homeless on Census night (meeting criteria of one or more of the ABS’ Homeless Operational Groups).


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:


Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Notes:



  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have been underenumerated in the Census and therefore, estimates of homelessness based on Census data will be an underestimation.

  • The ABS’ definition of homelessness has been developed for application to the general population in Australia.

  • People counted as homeless were assigned to one of 6 Homeless Operational Groups, following an ordered hierarchy:





    1. Persons living in improvised dwellings, tents or sleeping out

    2. Persons living in short term supported accommodation for the homeless

    3. Persons staying temporarily with other households

    4. Persons living in boarding houses

    5. Persons living temporarily in other lodgings

    6. Persons living in severely crowded dwellings




For example, people who usually lived in severely crowded households but were living in an improvised dwelling, tent or sleeping out on Census night would be counted within the 1st operational group and not the 6th.



  • The Homeless Operational Group, “Persons living in 'severely' crowded dwellings”, refers to usual residents in dwellings needing 4 or more extra bedrooms under the Canadian National Occupancy Standard (CNOS).

    • This group is included as homeless on the basis that individual residents are unlikely to have control of and access to space for social relations.

    • Some people in this operational group may not consider themselves to be homeless.

    • In some areas, like Very Remote parts of the Northern Territory, severe overcrowding is particularly common among Indigenous households. In such areas, Indigenous Australians enumerated in this operational group can make up over 90% of the Indigenous population counted as homeless.



  • Geographical breakdowns were based on Place of Enumeration. Some people may have been away from their usual residence (where applicable) on the night of the Census.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2018 Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness, 2016, ABS, accessed 18 October 2021.


AIHW 2017 Canadian National Occupancy Standard [METeOR], AIHW, accessed 1 December 2021.

Description:


Estimated proportion of Indigenous Australians who were considered at risk of homelessness on Census night (meeting criteria of one or more of the ABS’ marginal housing groups).


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:


Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Notes:



  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have been underenumerated in the Census and therefore, estimates of homelessness based on Census data will be an underestimation.

  • The ABS presents, alongside the homeless estimates from the Census, estimates of the number of people in selected marginal housing circumstances. These marginal housing groups not only provide an indication of the numbers of people living in marginal housing close to the boundary of homelessness, but can also provide a possible indication of people who may be at risk of homelessness.

  • Three marginal housing groups are classified from the Census:

    • persons living in other crowded dwellings (requiring 3 extra bedrooms to meet the CNOS)

    • persons in other improvised dwellings – that is those who were living in improvised dwellings but were not considered homeless under the rules for the group 'Persons living in improvised dwellings, tents or sleeping out'

    • persons who are marginally housed in caravan parks.



  • Geographical breakdowns were based on Place of Enumeration. Some people may have been away from their usual residence (where applicable) on the night of the Census.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2018 Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness, 2016, ABS, accessed 18 October 2021.


AIHW 2017 Canadian National Occupancy Standard [METeOR], AIHW, accessed 1 December 2021.

Description:


Estimated proportion of Indigenous Australians who were counted as homeless or considered at risk of homelessness on Census night.


Data period:


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source:


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census of Population and Housing 2016.


Region types reported:



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory; Australia.

  • ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Regions (IREGs).


Suppression rules:


Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Notes:



  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have been underenumerated in the Census and therefore, estimates of homelessness based on Census data will be an underestimation.

  • The ABS’ definition of homelessness has been developed for application to the general population in Australia.

  • People counted as homeless were assigned to one of 6 Homeless Operational Groups, following an ordered hierarchy:





    1. Persons living in improvised dwellings, tents or sleeping out

    2. Persons living in short term supported accommodation for the homeless

    3. Persons staying temporarily with other households

    4. Persons living in boarding houses

    5. Persons living temporarily in other lodgings

    6. Persons living in severely crowded dwellings




For example, people who usually lived in severely crowded households but were living in an improvised dwelling, tent or sleeping out on Census night would be counted within the 1st operational group and not the 6th.



  • The Homeless Operational Group, “Persons living in 'severely' crowded dwellings”, refers to usual residents in dwellings needing 4 or more extra bedrooms under the Canadian National Occupancy Standard (CNOS).

    • This group is included as homeless on the basis that individual residents are unlikely to have control of and access to space for social relations.

    • Some people in this operational group may not consider themselves to be homeless.

    • In some areas, like Very Remote parts of the Northern Territory, severe overcrowding is particularly common among Indigenous households. In such areas, Indigenous Australians enumerated in this operational group can make up over 90% of the Indigenous population counted as homeless.



  • The ABS presents, alongside the homeless estimates from the Census, estimates of the number of people in selected marginal housing circumstances. These marginal housing groups not only provide an indication of the numbers of people living in marginal housing close to the boundary of homelessness, but can also provide a possible indication of people who may be at risk of homelessness.

  • Three marginal housing groups are classified from the Census:

    • persons living in other crowded dwellings (requiring 3 extra bedrooms to meet the CNOS)

    • persons in other improvised dwellings – that is those who were living in improvised dwellings but were not considered homeless under the rules for the group 'Persons living in improvised dwellings, tents or sleeping out'

    • persons who are marginally housed in caravan parks.



  • Geographical breakdowns were based on Place of Enumeration. Some people may have been away from their usual residence (where applicable) on the night of the Census.

  • Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Reference material:


ABS 2018 Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness, 2016, ABS, accessed 18 October 2021.


AIHW 2017 Canadian National Occupancy Standard [METeOR], AIHW, accessed 1 December 2021.