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Life expectancy and mortality

Subtopic: Life expectancy

Description



  • Life expectancy at birth for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males

  • Life expectancy at birth for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander females


Data source


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Deaths Collection (ABS 2018)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory (NSW, Qld, WA & NT only); Australia


Notes


Life expectancy at birth is a summary indicator of how long, on average, a group of newborn babies could expect to live if current death rates at each age remained unchanged (ABS 2018). Life expectancy is an average value, not an exact measure of how long any individual will actually live; death rates in the population will change during a person’s lifetime and a person may die at an earlier or older age.


Life expectancy is calculated using life tables, which show the probability of dying at each age group based on deaths data and population estimates. Life expectancy can be calculated for any age using life tables, though life expectancy at birth is a common choice as a summary indicator.


The quality of life expectancy estimates depends on having complete and accurate data on the average number of deaths that occur in a period (by sex and age), and reliable estimates of the population (at the mid-point of the period) exposed to the risk of dying. While it is considered likely that the majority of deaths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are registered, some of these deaths are not identified as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander when they are registered (for example, because a person's Indigenous status is not reported during the deaths registration process). The quality of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification in deaths data varies across state/territory collections, geography and over time.


With regards to the population estimates, the extent of undercoverage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians in the 2016 Census and the relatively small sample size of the Post Enumeration Survey to adjust for that undercoverage means the estimates should be interpreted with a degree of caution (ABS 2016).


The estimates shown in the Regional Overview for Australia are the ABS’ ‘headline estimates’—these are estimates that take into account differences in Indigenous identification by age. This method improves the accuracy, but could only be used for national-level estimates, due to insufficient sample from the Post Enumeration Survey to accurately calculate age-specific identification rates. Life expectancy estimates for states/territories are also presented, but these assume uniform identification by age. Due to the different methodologies, life expectancy estimates for the states/territory are not directly comparable with the life expectancy estimates for Australia.


Reference material


ABS 2016. Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians methodology. Canberra: ABS. Viewed 28 April 2021.


ABS 2018. Life tables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Viewed 11 May 2020.

Subtopic: Median age at death

Description



  • Median age at death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males

  • Median age at death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander females


Data source


AIHW National Mortality Database – deaths registered in years 2014 to 2018. Snapshots: 2014, 2015 and 2016 – Final; 2017 – Revised; 2018 – Preliminary


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory (NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT only); Combined NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT


 Suppression rules


No suppressions necessary.


Notes


Deaths are reported based on the region of usual residence in the six months prior to death.


Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines, due to inconsistencies in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification.


Deaths with Indigenous status ‘not stated’ have not been included in this analysis (0.6% of all deaths in scope).

Subtopic: Death rate and causes of death

Description



  • Rate of deaths from all causes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders males (per 100,000 population, crude)

  • Rate of deaths from all causes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders females (per 100,000 population, crude)


Data source


AIHW National Mortality Database – deaths registered in years 2014 to 2018. Snapshots: 2014, 2015 and 2016 – Final; 2017 – Revised; 2018 – Preliminary


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory (NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT only); Combined NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT


Suppression rules


No suppressions necessary.


Notes


Deaths are reported based on the region of usual residence in the six months prior to death.


Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines, due to inconsistencies in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification.


Deaths with Indigenous status ‘not stated’ have not been included in this analysis (0.6% of all deaths in scope).


Rates are expressed as an average or annual rate over the 5-year period.

Description


Rate of deaths from all causes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (per 100,000 population) for ages: Under 1, 1–14, 15–24, 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64, 65+


Data source


AIHW National Mortality Database – deaths registered in years 2014 to 2018. Snapshots: 2014, 2015 and 2016 – Final; 2017 – Revised; 2018 – Preliminary


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory (NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT only); Combined NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT


Suppression rules


No suppressions necessary.


Notes


Deaths are reported based on the region of usual residence in the six months prior to death.


Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines, due to inconsistencies in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification.


Deaths with Indigenous status ‘not stated’ have not been included in this analysis (0.6% of all deaths in scope).


Rates are expressed as an average or annual rate over the 5-year period.

Description


Rate of deaths from all causes by Indigenous status (per 100,000 population, age-standardised)


Data source


AIHW National Mortality Database – deaths registered in years 2014 to 2018. Snapshots: 2014, 2015 and 2016 – Final; 2017 – Revised; 2018 – Preliminary


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory (NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT only); Combined NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT


Suppression rules


No suppressions necessary.


Notes


Deaths are reported based on the region of usual residence in the six months prior to death.


Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines, due to inconsistencies in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification.


Deaths with Indigenous status ‘not stated’ have not been included in this analysis (0.6% of all deaths in scope).


Rates were age-standardised to the Australian 2001 standard population using 10-year age groups beginning at 0–14 and ending at 75+.


Rates are expressed as an average or annual rate over the 5-year period.

Description



  • Percentage of deaths from selected broad causes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

  • Rate of deaths from selected broad causes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (per 100,000 population, crude)


Data source


AIHW National Mortality Database – deaths registered in years 2014 to 2018. Snapshots: 2014, 2015 and 2016 – Final; 2017 – Revised; 2018 – Preliminary


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory (NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT only); Combined NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT


Suppression rules


No suppressions necessary.


Notes


Deaths are reported based on the region of usual residence in the six months prior to death.


Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines, due to inconsistencies in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification.


Deaths with Indigenous status ‘not stated’ have not been included in this analysis (0.6% of all deaths in scope).


Broad causes of death were based on ICD-10 codes for the underlying cause of death (the disease or injury that initiated the train of events leading directly to death):



  • Cancer and other neoplasms (C00–D48)

  • Endocrine, metabolic and nutritional disorders (E00­­–E90)

  • Circulatory diseases (I00–I99)

  • Respiratory diseases (J00–J99)

  • Digestive diseases (K00–K93)

  • External causes (V01–Y98)

  • Other broad causes (all remaining causes of death)


Rates are expressed as an average or annual rate over the 5-year period.


Reference material


World Health Organisation (WHO) 2021. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision. Geneva: WHO. Viewed 12 May 2021.

Description


Rate of deaths from the 5 leading specific causes of death, nationally, for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (per 100,000 population, crude)


Data source


AIHW National Mortality Database – deaths registered in years 2014 to 2018. Snapshots: 2014, 2015 and 2016 – Final; 2017 – Revised; 2018 – Preliminary


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory (NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT only); Combined NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT


Suppression rules


No suppressions necessary.


Notes


Deaths are reported based on the region of usual residence in the six months prior to death.


Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines, due to inconsistencies in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification.


Deaths with Indigenous status ‘not stated’ have not been included in this analysis (0.6% of all deaths in scope).


Specific causes of death were based on ICD-10 codes for the underlying cause of death (the disease or injury that initiated the train of events leading directly to death). The 5 leading causes of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in 2014–2018 were:



  • Coronary heart disease (I20–I25)

  • Diabetes (E10–E14)

  • Lung cancer (C33, C34)

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (J40–J44)

  • Intentional self-harm (suicide) (X60–X84, Y87.0)


Death records registered in years 2016 to 2018 have not been finalised by the ABS, as such the data are subject to change. This particularly affects the suicide data.


Rates are expressed as an average or annual rate over the 5-year period.


Reference material


World Health Organisation (WHO) 2021. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision. Geneva: WHO. Viewed 12 May 2021.

Subtopic: Potentially avoidable deaths

Description


Percentage of deaths that were potentially avoidable among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 0–74


Data source


AIHW National Mortality Database – deaths registered in years 2014 to 2018. Snapshots: 2014, 2015 and 2016 – Final; 2017 – Revised; 2018 – Preliminary


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory (NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT only); Combined NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT


Suppression rules


No suppressions necessary.


Notes


Deaths are reported based on the region of usual residence in the six months prior to death.


Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines, due to inconsistencies in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification.


Deaths with Indigenous status ‘not stated’ have not been included in this analysis (0.6% of all deaths in scope).


Potentially avoidable deaths are defined as avoidable through individualised care and/or treatable through existing primary or hospital care (see ‘Reference material’ for a list of ICD-10 codes and criteria). Deaths among persons aged 75 and over are not considered potentially avoidable.


The denominators used to calculate the percentage of deaths that were potentially avoidable included only deaths for persons aged 0–74 at age of death.


Reference material


AIHW 2020. National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16–Potentially avoidable deaths, 2020. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 12 May 2021.


World Health Organisation (WHO) 2021. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision. Geneva: WHO. Viewed 12 May 2021.

Description


Percentage of deaths that were potentially avoidable among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males, females and persons, aged 0–74


Data source


AIHW National Mortality Database – deaths registered in years 2014 to 2018. Snapshots: 2014, 2015 and 2016 – Final; 2017 – Revised; 2018 – Preliminary


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory (NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT only); Combined NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT


Suppression rules


No suppressions necessary.


Notes


Deaths are reported based on the region of usual residence in the six months prior to death.


Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines, due to inconsistencies in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification.


Deaths with Indigenous status ‘not stated’ have not been included in this analysis (0.6% of all deaths in scope).


Potentially avoidable deaths are defined as avoidable through individualised care and/or treatable through existing primary or hospital care (see ‘Reference material’ for a list of ICD-10 codes and criteria). Deaths among persons aged 75 and over are not considered potentially avoidable.


The denominators used to calculate the percentage of deaths that were potentially avoidable included only deaths for persons aged 0–74 at age of death.


Reference material


AIHW 2020. National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16–Potentially avoidable deaths, 2020. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 12 May 2021.


World Health Organisation (WHO) 2021. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision. Geneva: WHO. Viewed 12 May 2021.

Description


Rate of potentially avoidable deaths for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males, females and persons (per 100,000 population, aged 0–74, crude)


Data source


AIHW National Mortality Database – deaths registered in years 2014 to 2018. Snapshots: 2014, 2015 and 2016 – Final; 2017 – Revised; 2018 – Preliminary


Region types reported



  • Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory (NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT only); Combined NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT


Suppression rules


No suppressions necessary.


Notes


Deaths are reported based on the region of usual residence in the six months prior to death.


Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines, due to inconsistencies in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification.


Deaths with Indigenous status ‘not stated’ have not been included in this analysis (0.6% of all deaths in scope).


Potentially avoidable deaths are defined as avoidable through individualised care and/or treatable through existing primary or hospital care (see ‘Reference material’ for a list of ICD-10 codes and criteria). Deaths among persons aged 75 and over are not considered potentially avoidable.


Rates are expressed as an average or annual rate over the 5-year period.


Reference material


AIHW 2020. National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16–Potentially avoidable deaths, 2020. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 12 May 2021.


World Health Organisation (WHO) 2021. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision. Geneva: WHO. Viewed 12 May 2021.

Description


Rate of potentially avoidable deaths by Indigenous status (per 100,000 population, aged 0–74)


Data source


AIHW National Mortality Database – deaths registered in years 2014 to 2018. Snapshots: 2014, 2015 and 2016 – Final; 2017 – Revised; 2018 – Preliminary


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: State/territory (NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT only); Combined NSW, Qld, WA, SA & NT


Suppression rules


No suppressions necessary.


Notes


Deaths are reported based on the region of usual residence in the six months prior to death.


Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines, due to inconsistencies in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification.


Deaths with Indigenous status ‘not stated’ have not been included in this analysis (0.6% of all deaths in scope).


Potentially avoidable deaths are defined as avoidable through individualised care and/or treatable through existing primary or hospital care (see ‘Reference material’ for a list of ICD-10 codes and criteria). Deaths among persons aged 75 and over are not considered potentially avoidable.


Rates were age-standardised to the Australian 2001 standard population using 10-year age groups beginning at 0–14 and ending at 65–74.


Rates are expressed as an average or annual rate over the 5-year period.


Reference material


AIHW 2020. National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16–Potentially avoidable deaths, 2020. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 12 May 2021.


World Health Organisation (WHO) 2021. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision. Geneva: WHO. Viewed 12 May 2021.