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People and communities

Subtopic: Indigenous population

Description



  • Estimated Resident Population of Indigenous Australians

  • Estimated Resident Population of Indigenous Australians as a percentage of the total Estimated Resident Population


Data period


30 June 2016


Data source


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Estimated Resident Population (ERP) (2016 Census based)


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) analysis of ERP and Census counts (2016 Census based) (for Indigenous Areas only)


 


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2), Statistical Areas Level 3 (SA3), States and Territories, Australia


ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Areas (IAREs), Indigenous Regions (IREGs)


Suppression rule


Data for percentages have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Notes


The denominator for the percentage is total number of Australians.


Population estimates for SA2, SA3, IREG, States and Territories and Australia are sourced from an ABS publication (ABS 2018b). These are Estimated Resident Population (ERP) data based on results of the 2016 Census of Population and Housing, with adjustments for net undercount as measured by the Post Enumeration Survey.


Population estimates for IAREs were produced by the AIHW using ERP data and Census counts from the ABS. IARE populations were estimated using Bayesian smoothing of Census counts, followed by iterative proportional fitting to the available ERP data using population correspondences.


The Estimated Resident Population (ERP) is the official measure of the population of Australia, and is based on the concept of usual residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality, citizenship or legal status, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. The ERP includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months and excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months (ABS 2016). 


The total estimated resident Indigenous population in Australia at 30 June 2016 was 798,400—comprising 649,200 people counted on Census night, plus 138,000 measured as net undercount, and an additional adjustment of 11,200 people (see ABS 2018b for details).


The extent of undercoverage of Indigenous Australians in the 2016 Census, together with the relatively small sample size of the Post Enumeration Survey to adjust for that undercoverage, means the estimates should be interpreted with a degree of caution (ABS 2018b).


Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Indigenous identification


The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population of Australia comprises people who are: of Aboriginal origin; Torres Strait Islander origin; or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin.


The ERP data are based primarily on the 2016 Census of Population and Housing. A person's Indigenous status is determined by their response to the ABS Standard Indigenous Question: "Are you of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?" for which categories are:


No
Yes, Aboriginal
Yes, Torres Strait Islander


This question also allows respondents to report that they are both 'Aboriginal' and 'Torres Strait Islander' if that is how they identify.


While the Census aims to obtain a complete count of the number of people in Australia, some people are missed. In obtaining a count of the Indigenous population, an additional issue for those who were counted in the Census is that Indigenous status is sometimes not stated. In the 2016 Census, Indigenous status was not stated for 6% of people.


The ABS conducts a Post Enumeration Survey after each Census to measure Census coverage. Based on this, the ABS estimated that the net undercount in the 2016 Census was 17.5% for the Indigenous population, and 1.0% for the total population (ABS 2018a). ERP data are based on Census data that have been adjusted for undercounting.


Reference material


ABS 2016. Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary. Canberra: ABS.


ABS 2018a. Census of Population and Housing: details of over count and undercount, Australia, 2016. ABS cat. No.2940.0. Canberra: ABS.


ABS 2018b. Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, June 2016: ABS cat. no. 3238.0.55.001. Canberra: ABS.


ABS 2019. Microdata: Census of Population and Housing, 2016. ABS cat. no. 2037.0.30.001. Canberra: ABS.

Description



  • Percentage of Indigenous population in each age group

  • Percentage of non-Indigenous population in each age group


Age groups: 0–4 years, 5–14 years, 15–24 years, 25–44 years, 45–64 years, 65 and over


Data periods


30 June 2016 for the following region types: SA2, SA3, IREG, States and Territories and Australia


August 9 2016 (Census night) for the following region type: IARE


Data sources


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Estimated Resident Population (ERP) data (2016 Census-based) for the following region types: SA2, SA3, IREG, States and Territories and Australia


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing (ABS 2019a) for the following region type: IARE


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: Statistical Areas Level 2, Statistical Areas Level 3, States and Territories, Australia


ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Areas (IAREs), Indigenous Regions (IREGs)


Suppression rule


Percentages have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Notes


Population estimates are used for all region types are based on Australian Bureau of Statistics data. These are Estimated Resident Population (ERP) data based on results of the 2016 Census of Population and Housing, with adjustments for net undercount as measured by the Post Enumeration Survey. ERP data by age were not available for Indigenous Areas (IARE). In the absence of these estimates, ABS 2016 Census counts were used to calculate proportions. Census counts are not adjusted for net undercount.


Data by SA2 and SA3 may have had small values suppressed or randomly perturbed to protect confidentiality. Small cells should be used with a degree of caution.


Data by IARE may have had small values suppressed or randomly perturbed to protect confidentiality. Small cells should be used with a degree of caution.


Data are based on place of usual residence (that is, the place where a person usually lives). It may or may not be the place the person was counted on Census night.


The denominator for Indigenous Australians is the total (all ages) Indigenous population in the selected region, and the denominator for non-Indigenous Australians is the total (all ages) non-Indigenous population in the region.


Indigenous identification    


In the data shown, 'Indigenous' refers to people identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin. The information could be provided directly by the individual, or by someone else on their behalf. 'Non-Indigenous' refers to those who were not of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin.


People for whom information on Indigenous status was not stated were excluded from the analysis. In the 2016 Census, Indigenous status was not stated for 6.0% of the population.


Reference material


ABS 2019a. Microdata: Census of Population and Housing, 2016. ABS cat. no. 2037.0.30.001. Findings based on Census TableBuilder Pro analysis. Canberra: ABS. 


ABS 2019b. Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia - Stories from the Census, 2016 . Canberra: ABS. Viewed 21 November 2019.

Description



  • Indigenous males as a proportion of total Indigenous population

  • Indigenous females as a proportion of total Indigenous population


Data period


30 June 2016 for the following region types: SA2, SA3, IREG, States and Territories and Australia


August 9 2016 (Census night) for the following region type: IARE


Data source


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Estimated Resident Population (ERP) data (2016 Census-based) for the following region types: SA2, SA3, IREG, States and Territories and Australia.


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing (ABS 2019a) for the following region type: IARE


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: Statistical Areas Level 2, Statistical Areas Level 3, States and Territories, Australia


ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Areas (IAREs), Indigenous Regions (IREGs) Suppression rules


Suppression rule


Percentages have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Notes


Population estimates are used for all region types and are sourced from an ABS publication (ABS 2018b). These are Estimated Resident Population (ERP) data based on results of the 2016 Census of Population and Housing, with adjustments for net undercount as measured by the Post Enumeration Survey.


ERP data by age were not available for all region types. In the absence of these estimates ABS 2016 Census counts were used to calculate proportions. 


Data are based on place of usual residence (that is, the place where a person usually lives). It may or may not be the place the person was counted on Census night.


Reference material


ABS 2019a. Microdata: Census of Population and Housing, 2016. ABS cat. no. 2037.0.30.001. Findings based on Census TableBuilder Pro analysis. Canberra: ABS. 


ABS 2019b. Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia - Stories from the Census, 2016. Canberra: ABS. Viewed 21 November 2019.

Description


Projected population, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2016 to 2020 (Series B projections)


Data source


The base population is the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander estimated resident population of Australia at 30 June 2016, derived from 2016 Census counts of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, adjusted for net undercount as measured by the Post Enumeration Survey (PES)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: States and Territories, Australia


ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Regions (IREGs)


Reference material


ABS 2019c. Estimates and Projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2006 to 2032. ABS cat. no. 3238.0. Canberra: ABS. Viewed 21 November 2020.

Subtopic: Indigenous households

Description



  • Number of Indigenous households

  • Average number of people per dwelling in Indigenous households


Data period


August 9 2016 (Census night)


Data source


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing (ABS 2019a)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: Statistical area 2, Statistical area 3, State/territory, Australia


ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Areas (IAREs), Indigenous Regions (IREGs)


Suppression rules


Data have been suppressed if the total number of Indigenous population (ERP) was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Notes


Data are based on place of usual residence (that is, the place where a person usually lives). It may or may not be the place the person was counted on Census night. 


Reference material


ABS 2019a. Microdata: Census of Population and Housing, 2016. ABS cat. no.2037.0.30.001. Findings based on Census TableBuilder Pro analysis. Canberra: ABS.


ABS 2019b. Census of Population and Housing: Characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2016. Canberra: ABS. Viewed 21 November 2019.

Subtopic: Indigenous language

Description


Proportion of Indigenous Australian who speak an Indigenous language at home


Data period


August 9 2016 (Census night)


Data source


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing (ABS 2019a)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: Statistical Areas Level 2, Statistical Areas Level 3, States and Territories, Australia


ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Areas (IAREs), Indigenous Regions (IREGs)


Suppression rules


Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Data have been suppressed if language spoken at home was not stated for >50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if language spoken at home was not stated for 25% –50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes


The denominator for the proportions is total number of respondents, excluding those for whom information on language spoken at home was not stated.


Data are based on responses to the Census question: ‘Does the person speak a language other than English at Home?’ Where the answer was yes, the respondent was asked to specify the language. Only one response could be provided, with the instructions indicating that if more than one language other than English is spoken, they should write the one that is spoken most often. 


Data are based on place of usual residence (that is, the place where a person usually lives). It may or may not be the place the person was counted on Census night. 


Reference material


ABS 2019a. Microdata: Census of Population and Housing, 2016. ABS cat. no.2037.0.30.001. Findings based on Census TableBuilder Pro analysis. Canberra: ABS.


ABS 2019b. Census of Population and Housing: Characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2016. Canberra: ABS. Viewed 21 November 2019.

Subtopic: Household income

Description



  • Proportion of Indigenous Australians in the specified equivalised weekly household income group

  • Proportion of non-Indigenous Australians in the specified equivalised weekly household income group


Income groups: $0-$299; $300-$499; $500-$799; $800-$1249; $1250 or more


Data period


August 9 2016 (Census night)


Data source


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing (ABS 2019)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: Statistical Areas Level 2, Statistical Areas Level 3, States and Territories, Australia


ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Areas (IAREs), Indigenous Regions (IREGs)


Suppression rules


Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Data have been suppressed if household income was not stated for >50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Data have been flagged as interpret with caution if household income was not stated for 25% –50% of the relevant population, due to relatively high exposure to potential bias.


Notes


The denominator for Indigenous population is total number of Indigenous respondents, excluding those for whom information on income was not stated. The denominator for non-Indigenous population is total number of non-Indigenous respondents, excluding those for whom information on income was not stated.


Data are based on the Census variable Equivalised Total Household Income (weekly) (HIED) (see ABS 2016).


Equivalised household income is an indicator of the economic resources available to a ‘standardised household’ that takes into account variations in household size and composition.  For a one-person household, it is equal to income received. For a household comprising more than 1 person, it is an indicator of the household income that a one-person household would require to enjoy the same level of economic wellbeing.


Equivalised household income is derived by calculating an equivalence factor according to the 'modified OECD' equivalence scale, and then dividing income by that factor. The equivalence factor is built up by allocating points to each person in a household (1 point to the first adult, 0.5 points to each additional person who is 15 years and over, and 0.3 to each child under the age of 15) and then summing the equivalence points of all household members (ABS 2016).


Reference material


ABS 2019. Microdata: Census of Population and Housing, 2016. ABS cat. no. 2037.0.30.001. Findings based on Census TableBuilder Pro analysis. Canberra: ABS. 


ABS 2016. Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary. Canberra: ABS.

Description


Median total household weekly income of Indigenous households ($/week)


Data period


August 9 2016 (Census night)


Data source


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing (ABS 2019)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: Statistical Areas Level 2, Statistical Areas Level 3, States and Territories, Australia


ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Areas (IAREs), Indigenous Regions (IREGs)


Suppression rules


Data have been suppressed if the total number of Indigenous population (ERP) was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.


Reference material


ABS 2019. Microdata: Census of Population and Housing, 2016. ABS cat. no. 2037.0.30.001. Findings based on Census TableBuilder Pro analysis. Canberra: ABS. 


ABS 2016. Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary. Canberra: ABS.

Subtopic: Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage

Description


Percentage of the Indigenous and non-Indigenous population living in each quartile of households—ranked by the Index of household advantage and disadvantage


Data period


Census night (9 August) 2016.


Data source


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2016. Census of Population and Housing 2016


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: Statistical Areas Level 2, Statistical Areas Level 3, States and Territories, Australia


ASGS 2016 Indigenous structure regions: Indigenous Areas (IAREs), Indigenous Regions (IREGs)


Suppression rule


Percentages have been suppressed where the summed number of residents in each quartile was less than 75.


Notes


Data are based on place of usual residence, including only occupied private dwellings.


Data include only people who were at home on Census night.


Data have been randomly adjusted (perturbed) by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.


Percentages have been calculated using the summed number of residents in each quartile as the denominator, rather than the perturbed totals, to ensure percentages sum to 100%.


Reference material


ABS 2019. Experimental Index of Household Advantage and Disadvantage, 2016. Canberra: ABS.

Description


SEIFA Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD)


Data source


ABS 2016 Census of Population and Housing (ABS 2019)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 Main Structure regions: Statistical area 2


Suppression rules


If an SA2 meets one or more of the following criteria, the area does not receive an index score:



  • has no usual addresses

  • the usual resident population is less than or equal to 10

  • the area is classified as off-shore or migratory

  • there are fewer than 6 employed persons

  • there are fewer than 6 classifiable occupied private dwellings

  • the proportion of people in private dwellings is less than or equal to 20%

  • the denominator of a variable in the index is less than 6


Notes


Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) is an ABS product that ranks areas in Australia according to relative socio-economic advantage and disadvantage. The indexes are based on information from the five-yearly Census of Population and Housing (ABS 2016a). The Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD) is a general socio-economic index that summarises a range of information about the economic and social conditions of people and households within an area. Unlike the other indexes, this index includes only measures of relative disadvantage. A low score indicates relatively greater disadvantage in general.


SEIFA indexes are assigned to areas, not to individuals. They indicate the collective socio-economic status of the people living in an area. A relatively disadvantaged area is likely to have a high proportion of relatively disadvantaged people. However, such an area is also likely to contain people who are not disadvantaged, as well as people who are relatively advantaged.


Due to non-response and low population levels in some SA2s, some areas does not receive an index score (ABS 2016b).


Reference material


ABS 2019. Microdata: Census of Population and Housing, 2016. ABS cat. no. 2037.0.30.001. Findings based on Census TableBuilder Pro analysis. Canberra: ABS. 


ABS 2016a. Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary. Canberra: ABS.


ABS 2016b. Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australia, 2016. Canberra: ABS. Viewed 22 November 2019.