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Pregnancy and birth

Subtopic: Demographics

Description


Number of liveborn babies born to First Nations mothers.


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rules


Numbers less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.


Notes



  • Indigenous status is based on mother’s Indigenous status.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Description


Proportion of liveborn babies born to First Nations mothers.


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rules



  • Percentages with a numerator of less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.

  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominator.


Notes



  • The denominator for the percentages excludes mothers whose Indigenous status were not stated.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Description


Number of First Nations liveborn babies.


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rules


Numbers less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.


Notes



  • Indigenous status is based on baby’s Indigenous status.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Description


Proportion of First Nations mothers who were aged under 20 at the time of giving birth.


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rules



  • Percentages with a numerator of less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.

  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominator.


Notes



  • The denominator for the percentages excludes First Nations mothers with age not stated.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.

  • Any First Nations teenagers who gave birth multiple times following multiple pregnancies during the three years from 2019 to 2021 were counted multiple times as long as they were aged under 20 at the time of giving birth. First Nations teenagers who gave birth to multiple babies following one pregnancy were counted once.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Description


Proportion of births to women by mothers’ age at delivery and Indigenous status.


Age categories: <20, 20–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35+.


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rule



  • Percentages with a numerator of less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.

  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of the percentages based on small denominator.


Notes



  • The denominator for the percentages excludes records where maternal age was not stated.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.

  • Women who gave birth multiple times following multiple pregnancies during the three years from 2019 to 2021 were counted multiple times. Women who gave birth to multiple babies following one pregnancy were only counted once.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Subtopic: Antenatal care

Description


Proportion of First Nations mothers who gave birth and attended the specified number of antenatal care visits.


Antenatal visit categories: 0 visit, 1 visit, 2–4 visits, 5 or more visits .


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rules



  • Percentages with a numerator of less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.

  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominator.


Notes



  • Data are for women who gave birth at 32 weeks or more gestation (excluding unknown gestation).

  • The denominator for the percentages excludes mothers with unknown number of antenatal visits.

  • First Nations women who gave birth multiple times following multiple pregnancies during the three years from 2019 to 2021 were counted multiple times. Women who gave birth to multiple babies following one pregnancy were only counted once.

  • For the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), and regions within the ACT, first antenatal visit is often the first hospital antenatal clinic visit. In many cases, earlier antenatal care provided by the woman’s general practitioner is not reported.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Description


Average number of antenatal care visits for First Nations mothers during pregnancy.


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rules


None.


Notes



  • Data are for women who gave birth at 32 weeks or more gestation (excluding unknown gestation). Excludes mothers with unknown number of antenatal visits.

  • Indigenous women who gave birth multiple times following multiple pregnancies during the three years from 2019 to 2021 were counted multiple times. Women who gave birth to multiple babies following one pregnancy were only counted once.

  • For the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), and regions within the ACT, first antenatal visit is often the first hospital antenatal clinic visit. In many cases, earlier antenatal care provided by the woman’s general practitioner is not reported.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Description


Duration of pregnancy (in weeks) at the first antenatal care visit for First Nations mothers, expressed as a proportion of all First Nations mothers.


Duration of pregnancy categories: <14 weeks; 14–19 weeks; 20 weeks or more; no antenatal care visit


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


 


Suppression rules



  • Percentages with a numerator of less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.

  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominator.


Notes



  • The duration of pregnancy in completed weeks is calculated from the date of the first day of a woman’s last menstrual period and her baby’s date of birth; or via ultrasound; or derived from clinical assessment during pregnancy or from examination of the baby after birth.

  • The denominator for the percentages excludes mothers for whom duration of pregnancy at the first antenatal care visit was not stated.

  • First Nations women who gave birth multiple times following multiple pregnancies during the three years from 2019 to 2021 were counted multiple times. Women who gave birth to multiple babies following one pregnancy were only counted once.

  • For the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), and regions within the ACT, first antenatal visit is often the first hospital antenatal clinic visit. In many cases, earlier antenatal care provided by the woman’s general practitioner is not reported.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Subtopic: Smoking

Description


Proportion of First Nations mothers who gave birth and smoked tobacco during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rules



  • Percentages with a numerator of less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.

  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominator.


Notes



  • Mother’s tobacco smoking status during pregnancy is self-reported.

  • All valid data for women with a recorded smoking status who gave birth in 2019, 2020 and 2021 were included.

  • The denominator for the percentages excludes mothers for whom smoking status in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy was not stated.

  • First Nations women who gave birth multiple times following multiple pregnancies during the three years from 2019 to 2021 were counted multiple times. Women who gave birth to multiple babies following one pregnancy were only counted once.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Subtopic: Body Mass Index

Description


Proportion of First Nations mothers gave birth and were in the specified Body Mass Index (BMI) group pre-pregnancy.


BMI categories: underweight (<18.5); normal weight (18.5–24.9); overweight (25–29.9); obese (>=30).


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rules



  • Percentages with a numerator of less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.

  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominator.


Notes



  • All valid data for women gave birth in 2019, 2020, and 2021 were included.

  • The denominator for the percentages excludes mothers whose BMI was not stated.

  • BMI data are based on a combination of measured and self-reported data. The methods used for data collection in States and Territories is not uniform. Care must be taken when comparing across jurisdictions.

  • First Nations women who gave birth multiple times following multiple pregnancies during the three years from 2019 to 2021 were counted multiple times. Women who gave birth to multiple babies following one pregnancy were only counted once.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Subtopic: Birthweight

Description


Proportion of First Nations singleton liveborn babies, by birthweight categories.


Birthweight categories: Healthy birthweight (2500–4499 grams), low birthweight (< 2,500 grams).


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rules



  • Percentages with a numerator of less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.

  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominator.


Notes



  • Data relate to live births. Data excludes multiple births, stillbirths and births of less than 20 weeks gestation. Births both less than 20 weeks gestation and less than 400 grams birthweight are not included in the National Perinatal Data Collection.The denominator for the percentages excludes babies whose birthweight was not stated.

  • Indigenous status is based on the baby’s Indigenous status.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Description


Proportion of First Nations and non-Indigenous singleton liveborn babies who had a low birthweight (< 2,500 grams).


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rules



  • Percentages with a numerator of less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.

  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominator.


Notes



  • Data relate to live births. Data excludes multiple births, stillbirths and births of less than 20 weeks gestation. Births both less than 20 weeks gestation and less than 400 grams birthweight are not included in the National Perinatal Data Collection.The denominator for the percentages excludes babies whose birthweight was not stated.

  • Indigenous status is based on the baby’s Indigenous status.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.

Subtopic: Preterm births

Description


Proportion of First Nations and non-Indigenous liveborn babies who were born preterm (with a gestational age of less than 37 weeks).


Data source


National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC) for the 3 year period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 (2019–2021)


Region types reported


Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2016 regions: Indigenous Regions (IREG), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4), States and Territories, Australia


Suppression rules



  • Percentages with a numerator of less than 5 have been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. Consequential suppression has also been applied where required to prevent back-calculation.

  • Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominator.


Notes



  • Data relate to live births. Data excludes multiple births, stillbirths and births of less than 20 weeks gestation. Births both less than 20 weeks gestation and less than 400 grams birthweight are not included in the National Perinatal Data Collection.The denominator for the percentages excludes babies whose gestational age was not stated.

  • Indigenous status is based on the baby’s Indigenous status.

  • The data associated with each record in the NPDC include the Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) of residence of the mother. The SA2 variable was used to aggregate and concord data as necessary to IREG and SA4. Includes Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and records where state/territory of residence was not stated.

  • In the NPDC, data for 2019, 2020 and 2021 are based on the 2016 ASGS. For this analysis, SA2 were concorded to IREG before being aggregated. Data were aggregated and apportioned to the reported region types.


Reference material


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2023a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 31 October 2023.


AIHW (2023b) Australia's mothers and babies, AIHW website, accessed 29 June 2023.


AIHW (2023c) National Perinatal Data Collection data availability resource, AIHW website, 31 October 2023.