## Alcohol consumption

#### Measure

Proportion (%) of First Nations people aged 15 and over exceeding single occasion alcohol risk guidelines over the last 12 months.

#### Available by

Sex: males, females, persons.

#### Data period

2018–19

#### Data source

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2018–19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (ABS 2019a, 2019b).

#### Region types

Main structure: Australia, states and territories.

#### Suppression

- Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

- Data have been flagged as use with caution if the margin of error was between 10% and 15%.

- Data have been suppressed if the margin of error was above 15%, or where a margin of error could not be reliably calculated (see ‘Notes’).

#### Notes

- Denominator for the percentages excludes First Nations people for whom information on alcohol consumption was not stated.

- Data are based on AIHW analysis of ABS microdata (ABS 2019a). Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.

- Alcohol consumption risk level is based on the 2009 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for reducing health risks associated with the consumption of alcohol. For short-term/single occasion risk, this is more than 4 standard drinks on any single occasion over last 12 months. A single occasion of drinking refers to a person consuming a sequence of drinks without their blood alcohol concentration reaching zero in-between.

- A margin of error (MOE) was calculated for each percentage at the 95% confidence level. At the 95% confidence level, the MOE indicates that the probability that the estimated percentage would differ by less than the specified margin of error from the true population value (the percentage obtained if data about the whole population were available) is about 95%. Percentages with a margin of error greater than 10 percentage points have been flagged as interpret with caution and/or suppressed (see ‘Suppression rules’). In some cases, the relative standard error of the percentage, used to derive the MOE, was suppressed in the ABS source data due to reliability and/or confidentiality concerns (ABS 2019c). In these cases, the ABS considers the associated percentages too unreliable for general use. Accordingly, when the MOE could not be calculated, the percentage in the Regional overview has been suppressed.

#### Measure

Proportion (%) of First Nations people aged 15 and over exceeding lifetime alcohol risk guidelines over the last 12 months.

#### Available by

Sex: males, females, persons.

#### Data period

2018–19

#### Data source

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2018–19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (ABS 2019a, 2019b).

#### Region types

Main structure: Australia, states and territories.

#### Suppression

- Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

- Data have been flagged as use with caution if the margin of error was between 10% and 15%.

- Data have been suppressed if the margin of error was above 15%, or where a margin of error could not be reliably calculated (see ‘Notes’).

#### Notes

- Denominator for the percentages excludes First Nations people for whom information on alcohol consumption was not stated.

- Data are based on AIHW analysis of ABS microdata (ABS 2019a). Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.

- Risk level is based on the 2009 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for reducing health risks associated with the consumption of alcohol. For short-term/single occasion risk, this is more than 4 standard drinks on any single occasion over the last 12 months. A single occasion of drinking refers to a person consuming a sequence of drinks without their blood alcohol concentration reaching zero in-between. For lifetime risk, this is more than 2 standard drinks per day on average over the last 12 months.

- A margin of error (MOE) was calculated for each percentage at the 95% confidence level. At the 95% confidence level, the MOE indicates that the probability that the estimated percentage would differ by less than the specified margin of error from the true population value (the percentage obtained if data about the whole population were available) is about 95%. Percentages with a margin of error greater than 10 percentage points have been flagged as interpret with caution and/or suppressed (see ‘Suppression rules’). In some cases, the relative standard error of the percentage, used to derive the MOE, was suppressed in the ABS source data due to reliability and/or confidentiality concerns (ABS 2019c). In these cases, the ABS considers the associated percentages too unreliable for general use. Accordingly, when the MOE could not be calculated, the percentage in the Regional overview has been suppressed.

## Smoking

#### Measure

Proportion (%) of First Nations people aged 15 and over who are current tobacco smokers.

#### Available by

Sex: males, females, persons.

#### Data period

Census night (10 August) 2021

#### Data source

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2018–19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (ABS 2019a, 2019b).

#### Region types

Main structure: Australia, states and territories.

#### Suppression

- Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators. Data have been flagged as use with caution if the margin of error was between 10% and 15%.

- Data have been suppressed if the margin of error was above 15%, or where a margin of error could not be reliably calculated (see ‘Notes’).

#### Notes

- Data are based on AIHW analysis of ABS microdata (ABS 2019a).

- Current smokers include persons who smoke tobacco daily, persons who smoke at least once a week but not daily, and those who smoked less than weekly.

- Denominator for the proportions excludes Indigenous Australians whose status of smoking was not stated.

- Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.

- Proportions for Indigenous Australians are based on ABS NATSIHS 2018–19 data, while those for non-Indigenous Australians are based on NHS 2017–18 data.

- A margin of error (MOE) was calculated for each percentage at the 95% confidence level. At the 95% confidence level, the MOE indicates that the probability that the estimated percentage would differ by less than the specified margin of error from the true population value (the percentage obtained if data about the whole population were available) is about 95%. Percentages with a margin of error greater than 10 percentage points have been flagged as interpret with caution and/or suppressed (see ‘Suppression rules’). In some cases, the relative standard error of the percentage, used to derive the MOE, was suppressed in the ABS source data due to reliability and/or confidentiality concerns (ABS 2019c). In these cases, the ABS considers the associated percentages too unreliable for general use. Accordingly, when the MOE could not be calculated, the percentage in the Regional overview has been suppressed.

#### Measure

Proportion (%) of First Nations people aged 15 and over by smoking status.

#### Smoking status categories

- Daily

- Less than daily

- Ex-smoker

- Never smoked.

#### Data period

2018–19

#### Data source

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2018–19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (ABS 2019a, 2019b).

#### Region types

Main structure: Australia, states and territories.

#### Suppression

- Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

- Data have been flagged as use with caution if the margin of error was between 10% and 15%.

- Data have been suppressed if the margin of error was above 15%, or where a margin of error could not be reliably calculated (see ‘Notes’).

#### Notes

- Data are based on AIHW analysis of ABS microdata (ABS 2019a).

- Less than daily smokers include persons who smoke at least once a week but not daily, and those who smoked less than daily.

- Denominator for the percentages excludes Indigenous Australians whose smoking status was not stated.

- Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.

- A margin of error (MOE) was calculated for each percentage at the 95% confidence level. At the 95% confidence level, the MOE indicates that the probability that the estimated percentage would differ by less than the specified margin of error from the true population value (the percentage obtained if data about the whole population were available) is about 95%. Percentages with a margin of error greater than 10 percentage points have been flagged as interpret with caution and/or suppressed (see ‘Suppression rules’). In some cases, the relative standard error of the percentage, used to derive the MOE, was suppressed in the ABS source data due to reliability and/or confidentiality concerns (ABS 2019c). In these cases, the ABS considers the associated percentages too unreliable for general use. Accordingly, when the MOE could not be calculated, the percentage in the Regional overview has been suppressed.

## Body Mass Index

#### Measure

Proportion (%) of First Nations people who were overweight or obese.

#### Available by

- Sex: males, females, persons.

- Age group: 2–17, 18–24, 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55 and over, all ages.

#### Data period

2018–19

#### Data source

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2018–19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (ABS 2019a, 2019b).

#### Region types

Main structure: Australia, states and territories.

#### Suppression

- Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

- Data have been flagged as use with caution if the margin of error was between 10% and 15%.

- Data have been suppressed if the margin of error was above 15%, or where a margin of error could not be reliably calculated (see ‘Notes’).

#### Notes

- Data are based on AIHW analysis of ABS microdata (ABS 2019a).

- Body Mass Index (BMI), which is an index of weight-for-height, was used to classify people as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese.

- Data are based on measured height and weight, with data imputed for those who did not have measurements taken. In 2018–19, height and/or weight measurements were not taken for 54% of First Nations children aged 2–17, and 40% of First Nations adults aged 18 and over. For these respondents, blood pressure was imputed by the ABS using a number of characteristics (see ABS 2019 for details).

- While the formula to calculate BMI scores is the same for adults and children, the classification of children's BMI is different to that of persons aged 18 years and over, and takes into account individual age and sex. For children aged 2 to 17, two measured BMI data items were available: one using a half-year cut-off, and one using a whole year cut-off (see ABS 2019 ‘Appendix – assessing health risk factors’ for details). This analysis uses the half-year cut-off.

- Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.

- A margin of error (MOE) was calculated for each percentage at the 95% confidence level. At the 95% confidence level, the MOE indicates that the probability that the estimated percentage would differ by less than the specified margin of error from the true population value (the percentage obtained if data about the whole population were available) is about 95%. Percentages with a margin of error greater than 10 percentage points have been flagged as interpret with caution and/or suppressed (see ‘Suppression rules’). In some cases, the relative standard error of the percentage, used to derive the MOE, was suppressed in the ABS source data due to reliability and/or confidentiality concerns (ABS 2019c). In these cases, the ABS considers the associated percentages too unreliable for general use. Accordingly, when the MOE could not be calculated, the percentage in the Regional overview has been suppressed.

## Diet

#### Measures

- Proportion (%) of First Nations people aged 12 and over who usually consume 3 to 4 serves of fruit daily.

- Proportion (%) of First Nations people aged 12 and over who usually consume 3 to 4 serves of vegetables daily.

#### Data period

2018–19

#### Data source

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2018–19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (ABS 2019a, 2019b).

#### Region types

Main structure: Australia, states and territories.

#### Suppression

- Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

- Data have been flagged as use with caution if the margin of error was between 10% and 15%.

- Data have been suppressed if the margin of error was above 15%, or where a margin of error could not be reliably calculated (see ‘Notes’).

#### Notes

- Data are based on AIHW analysis of ABS microdata (ABS 2019a). Denominator for the percentages excludes First Nations people whose information on vegetables intake was not stated.

- Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.

- A margin of error (MOE) was calculated for each percentage at the 95% confidence level. At the 95% confidence level, the MOE indicates that the probability that the estimated percentage would differ by less than the specified margin of error from the true population value (the percentage obtained if data about the whole population were available) is about 95%. Percentages with a margin of error greater than 10 percentage points have been flagged as interpret with caution and/or suppressed (see ‘Suppression rules’). In some cases, the relative standard error of the percentage, used to derive the MOE, was suppressed in the ABS source data due to reliability and/or confidentiality concerns (ABS 2019c). In these cases, the ABS considers the associated percentages too unreliable for general use. Accordingly, when the MOE could not be calculated, the percentage in the Regional overview has been suppressed.

## Blood pressure

#### Measure

Proportion (%) of First Nations adults aged 18 and over with high blood pressure (140/90 mmHg or higher).

#### Data period

2018–19

#### Data source

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2018–19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (ABS 2019a, 2019b).

#### Region types

Main structure: Australia, states and territories.

#### Suppression

- Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

- Data have been flagged as use with caution if the margin of error was between 10% and 15%.

- Data have been suppressed if the margin of error was above 15%, or where a margin of error could not be reliably calculated (see ‘Notes’).

#### Notes

- Data are based on AIHW analysis of ABS microdata (ABS 2019a).

- Denominator for the percentages excludes First Nations people whose information on blood pressure was not stated.

- Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.

- High blood pressure includes high (140/90 to <160/110 mmHg), very high (160/110 to <180/110 mmHg) and severe (from 180/110 mmHg).

- A margin of error (MOE) was calculated for each percentage at the 95% confidence level. At the 95% confidence level, the MOE indicates that the probability that the estimated percentage would differ by less than the specified margin of error from the true population value (the percentage obtained if data about the whole population were available) is about 95%. Percentages with a margin of error greater than 10 percentage points have been flagged as interpret with caution and/or suppressed (see ‘Suppression rules’). In some cases, the relative standard error of the percentage, used to derive the MOE, was suppressed in the ABS source data due to reliability and/or confidentiality concerns (ABS 2019c). In these cases, the ABS considers the associated percentages too unreliable for general use. Accordingly, when the MOE could not be calculated, the percentage in the Regional overview has been suppressed.

## Physical activity

#### Measure

Proportion (%) of First Nations children aged 4–14 who were physically active everyday for at least 60 minutes every day in the last week.

#### Data period

2014–15

#### Data source

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2014–15 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (AIHW & NIAA 2020).

#### Region types

Main structure: Australia, states and territories.

#### Suppression

NIL

#### Notes

- Denominator for the percentages excludes Indigenous Australians whose information on physical activity was not applicable, not known or not stated.

- Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.

## Diabetes

#### Measure

Proportion (%) of First Nations adults aged 18 and over who reported having diabetes or high sugar levels.

#### Data period

2018–19

#### Data source

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2018–19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (ABS 2019a, 2019b).

#### Region types

Main structure: Australia, states and territories.

#### Suppression

- Data have been suppressed if the denominator for the percentage was less than 100, due to concerns about the reliability of percentages based on small denominators.

- Data have been flagged as use with caution if the margin of error was between 10% and 15%.

- Data have been suppressed if the margin of error was above 15%, or where a margin of error could not be reliably calculated (see ‘Notes’).

#### Notes

- Data are based on AIHW analysis of ABS microdata (ABS 2019a).

- Denominator for the percentages excludes First Nations people whose information on diabetes or high sugar levels was not stated.

- Data have been randomly adjusted by the ABS to protect confidentiality. No reliance should be placed on small numbers.

- A margin of error (MOE) was calculated for each percentage at the 95% confidence level. At the 95% confidence level, the MOE indicates that the probability that the estimated percentage would differ by less than the specified margin of error from the true population value (the percentage obtained if data about the whole population were available) is about 95%. Percentages with a margin of error greater than 10 percentage points have been flagged as interpret with caution and/or suppressed (see ‘Suppression rules’). In some cases, the relative standard error of the percentage, used to derive the MOE, was suppressed in the ABS source data due to reliability and/or confidentiality concerns (ABS 2019c). In these cases, the ABS considers the associated percentages too unreliable for general use. Accordingly, when the MOE could not be calculated, the percentage in the Regional overview has been suppressed.

## References

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS 2019a) Microdata: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS), 2018–19. Findings based on TableBuilder analysis, ABS website, accessed 20 April 2021.

ABS (2019b) National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey, ABS website, accessed 20 April 2021.

ABS (2019c) TableBuilder, User Guide – Relative standard error, ABS website, accessed 20 April 2021.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) & National Indigenous Australians Agency (NIAA) (2020) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework: measure 2.18 Physical activity, AIHW website, accessed 24 November 2022.